This paper by Toby Ord explores the fundamental causal limits on how much of the universe we can observe or affect. It distinguishes four principal regions: the affectable universe, the observable universe, the eventually observable universe, and the ultimately observable universe. It then shows how these (and other) causal limits set physical bounds on what spacefaring civilisations could achieve over the longterm future.

Link to the paper

Posted in 2021, Featured Research, Macrostrategy.

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